Sweetness, composition, nutritional aspects, functional characteristics and applications of nutritive sweeteners (i.e., sugar/sucrose, dextrose, fructose, invert, corn sweeteners, honey, high fructose corn syrup, maple syrup, molasses, malt, fruit juice, polyols) and high intensity sweeteners (i.e., aspartame/Nutrasweet,, aspartic acid, neotame,saccharine, acesulfame potassium (ace-k), sucralose) as well as natural sweeteners (i.e., stevia, luo han guo, agave).