BUFFALO, N.Y.—Orange juice may help to combat the damaging, inflammatory effects that high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meals may cause on the body, according to new research at the University of New York at Buffalo.
The findings, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, may help explain the mechanisms underlying postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis.
Researchers studied three groups (10 subjects in each group) of normal, healthy subjects were asked to drink water or 300 kcal glucose or orange juice in combination with a 900-kcal HFHC meal. Blood samples were obtained before and one, three and five hours after the drinks and meal combinations were consumed.
Protein expression of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox, phosphorylated and total p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3; TLR2 and TLR4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression; mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in MNCs; and plasma concentrations of endotoxin and MMP-9 increased significantly after glucose or water were consumed with the meal but not when orange juice was consumed with the meal. The generation of reactive oxygen species by polymorphonuclear cells was significantly lower when orange juice was added to the meal than when water or glucose was added to the meal.
The combination of glucose or water and the HFHC meal induced oxidative and inflammatory stress and an increase in TLR expression and plasma endotoxin concentrations. In contrast, orange juice intake with the HFHC meal prevented meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, including the increase in endotoxin and TLR expression.