Reducing Microbes

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June 2003
Cover Story

Reducing Microbes


By Donna Berry
Contributing Editor


Bacteria, molds and yeasts are everywhere. Some are necessary, others are a nuisance — causing food to spoil and thus limiting shelf life — and a select few, called pathogens, can prove downright deadly.

Pathogenic microorganisms can be introduced into the food chain at any point, through agricultural conditions or contamination during processing. Though proper heat treatments and subsequent sanitary handling should keep most pathogens out of the food supply, they are common in production environments of raw foods. Therefore, continuous efforts are needed to effectively prevent pathogenic contamination and growth.

Federal and state government agencies work together closely to safeguard the food supply. From inspecting farms and slaughterhouses to ensuring effective pasteurization and proper distribution temperatures, these agencies have made the U.S. food supply one of the world’s safest.

Even with these safeguards, according to the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), on average, someone in the United States develops a food-borne illness — an array of illnesses caused by consuming foods contaminated with certain microorganisms — every second. Though most are minor afflictions, CDC statistics show that these cause as many as 325,000 Americans to be hospitalized annually and about 5,000 to die each year. The numbers are much greater in other countries.


Keeping safe
Because the U.S. food industry produces such high-quality food, this may contribute to an increased food-safety risk. In the past, we knew food was bad by its spoiled taste or smell. To expand distribution — often to a global market — manufacturers have employed technologies to lower or virtually eliminate spoilage microorganisms from foods, extending shelf life so foods can reach far-off destinations, or simply have more days on the shelf. Without spoilage bacteria to indicate “it’s time to throw this product out,” pathogenic bacteria have time to grow to numbers that can cause illness.

For example, today’s milk supply is so clean because very few pathogenic bacteria can survive standard HTST pasteurization temperatures. But the milk’s longer shelf life can give pathogens time to grow to noteworthy levels, particularly if the milk is subjected to temperature abuse. Years ago, inherent spoilage flora would have soured milk long before any pathogen could increase to deleterious levels.

In addition, manufacturers’ efforts to make foods more convenient and tasty also increase safety risks by going outside traditional processing, packaging and even distribution parameters that formerly ensured pathogens or their toxins would not contaminate foods. Today’s consumers want faster food that tastes fresh; ready-to-serve produce; and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry entrées with a slow-cooked taste. They also want to have faith in the food supply. Food manufacturers have the responsibility to use every tool available to ensure a high-quality, safe food supply. Thankfully, scientists continue to identify formulating, processing and packaging tools to help reduce or eliminate undesirable microorganisms.

Though it’s imperative to use high-quality raw materials, even the highest-quality food still contains microorganisms — spoilage and pathogenic. So, formulators will often turn to ingredients that lend antimicrobial assistance.

Antimicrobials reduce or eliminate microorganisms. Since the beginning of time, ingredients such as salt, sugar and vinegar have preserved food. Today, a host of other compounds prevent or retard microbial growth. The most-prevalent ones fall into these categories: proteins, organic acids and their salts, live cultures, plant-derived compounds, and certain foods.


Protein power
Some proteins and protein-based compounds possess antimicrobial properties. For example, nisin, a polypeptide produced from Lactococcus lactis, inhibits C. botulinum growth in pasteurized cheese spreads and pasteurized process-cheese spreads. Though not approved in the United States for any other applications, purified nisin can improve the shelf life of other dairy products, including fluid milk and dairy desserts. Other countries have approved such uses, along with application in low-acid canned foods, cured meats and some alcoholic beverages. Like other bacteriocins, nisin’s activity is against a limited range of microorganisms, in this case Gram-positive bacteria — particularly those that produce spores.

Natamycin, also known as pimaricin, is an antifungal agent produced by Streptomyces natalensis. The compound is effective against yeasts and molds, but not bacteria. It is approved in the United States for use as an additive to the surface cuts and slices of cheese to inhibit mold spoilage.

Lysozyme, an enzyme derived from egg whites, has a bacteriocidal effect on a range of lactic-acid spoilage bacteria, including Lactobacilli, Leuconostoc and Pediococci. In natural-cheese applications, it attacks Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which produces undesirable gas that results in late blowing of cheese. It also prevents flavor degradation without affecting the cheese culture during aging. In December 2000, FDA recognized lysozyme as GRAS as an antimicrobial agent in hot-dog casings, and on cooked meat and poultry products. In all lysozyme applications, ingredient panels must state “egg white lysozyme” to alert egg-allergic consumers of its presence.

The bioactive milk protein lactoferrin plays an important role in immune-system response and helps protect the body against infections. It is an ingredient in infant formula, dairy products and chewing gums. In January 2002, USDA approved activated lactoferrin for use on fresh beef, providing beef processors with a potentially powerful technology to protect consumers from pathogenic bacteria.

“Activated lactoferrin” describes a unique combination of natural ingredients that mimic the optimum environment necessary for lactoferrin’s maximum antimicrobial activity. Activation biases lactoferrin to its iron-free and immobilized forms, in effect returning lactoferrin to its most natural and functional state. A multiple-function ingredient, activated lactoferrin protects meat in three key ways: it detaches pathogens already attached to meat, prevents other pathogens from adhering to meat and inhibits pathogen growth. It does all this without impacting the meat’s taste, appearance or nutritional qualities. Activated lactoferrin has a U.S. patent.

Researchers at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, have developed an experimental proteinaceous compound that is sprinkled or sprayed onto food and can neutralize some of the most-common food-borne germs. Developed from freeze-dried egg yolk, the compound is an antibody that works by binding with pathogens, carrying them through the body without causing infection. “[It] does not kill the germs but prevents them from infecting your body,” says Hoon Sunwoo, Ph.D., one of the researchers, who recently presented his findings during the 225th national meeting of the American Chemical Society in New Orleans. “The antibody can remain active for one or two hours after being ingested. That buys precious time that can help keep you alive if you eat contaminated food.”

To make the compound, hens are injected with specific food-borne germs. They then develop antibodies to the germs as their immune system attempts to attack them, with the antibodies accumulating in large quantities in their eggs’ yolks. These eggs are processed and freeze-dried to form a natural, germ-fighting compound. The flavorless compound has a two-year shelf life and does not alter the foods’ taste.


Dropping acidity
Foods with a pH below 4.5 are considered acidic, and many microorganisms will not proliferate in such an environment. By lowering a food’s pH, a variety of organic acids or organic-acid salts can effectively control the growth of select microorganisms. Organic acids may be found naturally in foods, added as an ingredient or accumulated as a result of bacterial fermentation.

Organic-acid ingredients for food preservation include acetic, benzoic, citric, lactic, malic, propionic and sorbic, as well as their soluble salts (calcium, potassium or sodium). Effective use levels and target microorganisms vary by ingredient. For example, sorbic acid and its soluble salts (such as potassium sorbate) are effective against yeast and mold inhibition, with little activity against bacteria. Common applications include cheese, sausage and baked goods, excluding yeast-raised products. Calcium and sodium propionate are effective against molds and have slight antibacterial action, but little action on yeasts, so they work well in yeast-raised baked products.

Sodium benzoate is primarily used as an antifungal agent in jams and jellies, fruit-flavored beverages, baked goods, and salad dressings. Its use against bacteria is limited by poor activity above pH 4.0, where bacteria are the greatest problem.

Antimicrobial agents formulated with sodium or potassium lactate and sodium diacetate are effective in inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat and poultry products.

On Dec. 9, 2002, FSIS put into effect directive 10,240.3, which instructs inspection-program personnel on when and how often to inspect RTE meat and poultry products, such as deli-type meats and poultry that are sliced in the establishment or at retail, and hot-dog-type products. The directive identifies antimicrobial agents formulated with sodium/potassium lactate and sodium diacetate as a means to have the RTE products classified as “low risk.” Establishments that produce low-risk products may be eligible for FSIS’s low-targeted verification testing program, meaning decreased frequency of product, food-contact surface and plant-environment testing.

“It is advantageous for RTE meat and poultry processors to be included in the low-verification testing program, because decreased frequency of pathogen testing means lower costs for processors,” says Jim Lees, market manager, meat and poultry, PURAC America Inc., Lincolnshire, IL. “establishments that produce high- or medium-risk RTE products and that do not carry out regular environmental testing for L. monocytogenes are subject to an intensified verification testing program for product, food contact surfaces and plant environment, resulting in higher costs for the processor.

“Purasal® Opti.Form™ is formulated from natural sodium or potassium lactate and sodium diacetate,” says Lees, and provides the right balance between flavor and effectiveness. The liquid product, which is added directly to the brine for whole-muscle products and at the final mixing stage for emulsified products, is highly effective in controlling L. monocytogenes and Salmonella. “By using it with RTE products, processors can obtain low-risk-product classification,” he adds.

The company offers a predictive model to calculate the levels of lactate and diacetate required to retard the growth of L. monocytogenes in cured meat and poultry products. This scientific model takes into account such factors as the amount of moisture in the finished product, concentrations of sodium or potassium lactate, sodium diacetate and salt, and GMPs. The model assumes a finished-product storage temperature of 40ºF.

Acidified calcium sulphate, an organic acid and calcium sulfate combination identified by researchers at Texas A&M University, College Station, also shows promise as a way to kill L. monocytogenes in RTE meats, as well as certain cheeses. The researchers inoculated commercially made hot dogs with a four-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail containing 10 million microorganisms per gram, representing a worst-case scenario. Samples were treated with saline (control), acidified calcium sulphate, potassium lactate or lactic acid. The hot dogs were then vacuum-packed and stored under refrigerated conditions for 12 weeks. Researchers found the acidified calcium sulphate killed the surface Listeria and also stopped the organism from returning.


Live cultures
Food scientists long believed the preservative effect of lactic-acid bacteria during the manufacture and subsequent storage of fermented foods was due solely to the acidic conditions created during fermentation, which converts carbohydrates into organic acids. However, researchers have discovered there is more to the preservation process than simply a pH drop. Lactic-acid bacteria produce and excrete a variety of inhibitory substances other than lactic and acetic acids, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, free fatty acids, benzoate, antibiotics and bacteriocins. In addition, some beneficial microorganisms inhibit pathogen growth by consuming the resources that pathogens need to survive and proliferate.

Formulators looking to decrease preservative additives in foods to obtain a more “natural” label can turn to select lactic-acid bacteria, which inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms through their metabolites. In other words, it’s microorganism against microorganism.

Because purified nisin is approved in the United States for limited applications, an alternative approach to reap the bacteriocidal benefits of nisin is to ferment certain foods with nisin-producing lactic-acid bacteria. For example, if the lactic-acid bacteria used for fermented dairy products, such as buttermilk, yogurt and sour cream, can synthesize nisin or some other bacteriocin, the dairy product, in fact, has its own built-in all-natural preservation system.

Now, take this a step further. Once the bacteriocin is produced in these foods, they in turn can become ingredients in other foods, indirectly adding the bacteriocin to the prepared food. Ingredient labels can simply read “cultured milk.”

Cultured whey also can inhibit mold growth. Select food-grade microorganisms ferment whey, resulting in an ingredient loaded with natural preservatives. For example, one company ferments whey with propionic bacteria, which produce calcium propionate and a small amount of acetate. The whey ingredient — simply labeled as “cultured whey”— has application in sauces, marinades, breads, sausages, jerky and other products.

Similar non-dairy mold inhibitors are also available. These use corn-syrup solids or dextrose as the fermentation substrate, and are listed accordingly on ingredient statements.


Food-safety plants
Many spices, herbs and plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity. Often the antimicrobial compound is found in the essential-oil fraction. The problem is that these ingredient-use levels are typically not high enough to be effective. However, in combination with other antimicrobial efforts, the effect they do provide can ultimately result in a superior antimicrobial system through a hurdle effect.

The hurdle concept uses several different antimicrobial interventions to successfully reduce microbial risk to acceptable levels. This includes ingredient additions, along with formulation adjustments and process interventions. Combining a number of factors realizes the preservative effects of each without impacting the food’s sensory attributes. Additionally, this combination often exerts a synergistic effect that produces greater efficacy against target microorganisms.

Microorganisms differ in their resistance to a given spice or herb, with bacteria more resistant than yeasts and molds. Specifically, Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the effect on spores may be different than on vegetative cells.

The most-effective antimicrobial spices are cinnamon, cloves, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, sage and thyme. The essential oil eugenol in cinnamon, cloves and sage possesses antimicrobial properties, as does the allyl isothiocyanate present in mustard. Allicin in garlic also acts as an antimicrobial agent and has been effective in controlling E. coli. Thymol, found in thyme, oregano and sage, is also noted for its antimicrobial properties.

Daniel Y.C. Fung, Ph.D., and other researchers at Kansas State University, Manhattan, have studied the antimicrobial properties of a variety of spices in meat products inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, and found that cloves have a high antimicrobial effect against this pathogen in ground beef. Cinnamon, garlic, oregano and sage also proved effective.

Fung also looked at the relationship between garlic and heat in E. coli-inoculated ground beef. He found that garlic provides protection against the pathogen’s growth in undercooked ground beef. Additionally, as the cooking temperature increased, so did garlic’s antagonistic effect.

Because garlic doesn’t complement all foods, Fung investigated the antimicrobial properties of cinnamon in pasteurized apple juice inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. Results show that just 0.3% cinnamon inhibits E. coli O157:H7 in juice stored for three days at 77ºF. The same amount is effective at 47ºF for up to eight weeks.

Studies from researchers at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, working with oregano extract in meat, have shown that a small amount of oregano extract significantly slows the growth of Listeria. Oregano has a powerful flavor, and though the amount used is small, the group is trying to dilute the flavor to keep it from overpowering the meat. Kalidas Shetty, Ph.D., a lead researcher on the project, notes that eliminating the entire flavor is not possible because some of the flavor intensity is linked to the compounds that inhibit Listeria growth.

Researchers at Complutense University, Madrid, Spain, recently discovered that dipping fruit in trans-resveratrol — an antioxidant that is found in grapes — reduced yeast and mold growth, thus extending shelf life. In this experiment, apples’ shelf life went from two weeks to three months, while the shelf life of similarly dipped grapes went from one week to two weeks.

Trans-resveratrol is one of the red-wine components thought to combat heart disease and even cancer in moderate wine-drinkers, perhaps by neutralizing oxidizing agents, such as free radicals normally created in the body. Researchers theorize this same neutralizing effect probably prevents fruit-tissue damage, slowing the onset of mold and yeast growth.


Calling all plums and raisins
When added as a noncharacterizing ingredient, dried plums and raisins can serve as effective antimicrobials in meat applications. Fung and graduate student Leslie Thompson investigated the antimicrobial effects of varying levels of dried-plum puree and fresh plum juice in uncooked ground beef inoculated with a five-strain pathogen cocktail of Salmonella typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica and S. aureus. After five days, the ground-beef samples containing 3% or more of either plum ingredient contained fewer pathogenic bacteria than the control. In fact, the plum-containing beef samples had lower total-bacterial counts, indicating that the plum ingredients suppress all bacteria.

In a follow-up study, they also evaluated dried-plum puree, fresh plum-juice concentrate, and a powder — consisting of a mixture of dried plums and pears — in similarly inoculated uncooked ground-beef and pork-sausage samples. After five days, a 1 to 2 log cfu (colony-forming units)/gram reduction of all inoculated pathogens occurred in the uncooked ground beef containing dried-plum puree or plum juice. In the uncooked pork sausage, significant suppression (at least 0.5 log cfu/gram) of total aerobic count, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica and S. aureus was observed with 6% dried-plum puree and 6% dried-plum and pear powder.

Raisins also possess antimicrobial properties, related to their phenolic content. Golden raisins show the highest phenolic concentration, due to their lack of browning. Though many of the phenolics in dark raisins are lost because of browning reactions, the drying process used to produce raisins concentrates the remaining phenolics, making them significant on a per-weight basis.


More ingredient options
Other antimicrobials used in the food industry include parabens, esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. Although related to benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, the parabens are effective over a much-wider pH range. The most-common parabens are methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate. The ethyl and butyl esters also have some food applications. Parabens are most active against yeasts and molds, and have application in baked goods, beverages, fruit products, salad dressings, syrups and olives.

Nitrate, the salt of nitric acid, and nitrite, the salt of nitrous acid, are used for curing meat, poultry and fish products. Nitrate must be chemically reduced to nitrite to produce the curing reaction or exert antimicrobial properties. Nitrites can inhibit the growth and toxin production of C. botulinum in cured products. Some food manufacturers, though, avoid using nitrates and nitrites when possible, as research has shown nitrites produce carcinogenic compounds.

Hydrogen peroxide is approved for use as an antimicrobial in milk intended for the production of cheese, whey and dried-egg products.

Research shows liquid smoke can eliminate E. coli O157:H7, as well as other pathogens, in meat products. Its functionality is mainly due to organic acids, including acetic and propionic, which lower pH and destroy bacterial cell walls. Liquid smoke has the added benefit of being labeled or classified as a natural product.


Process and package aids
Numerous processing and packaging technologies affect microbial loads in food products. These include — but are not limited to — heating, filtering, applying pressure, freezing, gas flushing and irradiating.

HTST pasteurization destroys all pathogenic microorganisms in food, along with many spoilage microorganisms. UHT pasteurization destroys all viable microorganisms, creating a virtual sterile environment. Though these techniques work well for many food and beverage applications, manufacturers cannot pasteurize many high-risk products, or prefer not to place them under intense heat treatment because of the negative effect on sensory attributes.

Scientists at USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) recently inactivated bacteria in apple juice through the use of radio-frequency electric fields (RFEF). David Geveke, a chemical engineer at the Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit at USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA, built a specially designed treatment chamber to apply high-intensity RFEF to apple juice. Although RFEF has been studied for more than 50 years as a pasteurization method, this is the first confirmed instance of a successful inactivation of bacteria using this technique in fruit juice. This nonthermal technique provides an attractive option to conventional heat pasteurization, which destroys nutrients and flavors in fruit and vegetable juices. However, when moderate heat is applied, the combined effect is much greater than the effect of either process alone.

Researchers conducted experiments using E. coli K12, a harmless form of bacteria used to study similarly behaving pathogenic strains, such as E. coli O157:H7. Apple juice was exposed to electrical-field strengths of up to 20 kilovolts/cm and frequencies in the range of 15 to 70 kilohertz, using a 4-kilowatt power supply. Increasing the field strength and temperature, as well as decreasing the frequency, enhanced inactivation. E. coli in a juice sample at 122ºF was reduced 99.9%, suggesting that RFEF could provide an alternative to traditional HTST pasteurization, which occurs at 161ºF. The technique has potential with other heat-sensitive products, including liquid eggs.

Another alternative to heat pasteurization is high-pressure processing (HPP). This technique reduces the vegetative microbial load in foods by breaking hydrogen bonds, but not covalent bonds. This denatures protein, which inactivates bacteria without changing vitamins, flavors and colors. Combining heat with pressure can increase the treatment’s effectiveness.

Prepared, refrigerated guacamole was the first commercial product in North America to use HPP. Avocadoes are low-acid and loaded with enzymes, resulting in a very short shelf life for fresh guacamole — about a week. HPP extends shelf life to 30 to 40 days, without preservatives.

HPP also reduces pathogens without heat. Heat destroys much of the avocado flavor and can cause oil separation in avocado-based products, eliminating normal pasteurization as an option. HPP guacamole requires high-barrier plastic packaging to prevent oxygen exposure, as HPP does not destroy the enzymes; it just inactivates their activity in oxygen’s absence.

Another nonthermal food preservation technique, pulsed electric field (PEF) technology, applies a short burst of high voltage through fluid foods placed or flowing between two electrodes. The treatment is conducted at ambient or refrigerated temperatures for microseconds, minimizing heat generation due to energy transfer. Foods retain fresh-like physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics, and exhibit extended refrigerated shelf life.

Packaging technology has advanced, too. The shelf life of hard cheeses can increase two to nine months when packed in material made from bio-based polymers. Researchers at The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark, have applied oxygen scavengers and other preservatives to a packaging material made from polylactate. The material is based on lactic acid produced by lactic-acid bacteria found in corn. The packaging not only extends shelf life prior to opening the cheese; it also improves the keeping quality once it’s opened. The packaging’s active components reduce mold growth and development of rancid taste.

Combining barrier packaging with an antimicrobial gas flush creates an environment that reduces or prevents microbial growth. This technique, referred to as modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP), most often uses carbon dioxide gas, which inhibits a variety of microorganisms. Its effectiveness depends on variables such as gas concentration, initial contamination, water activity of the food product, packaging barriers, etc.

Sulfur dioxide, another gas long used as an antimicrobial, is effective against bacteria, molds and yeasts, and works in applications including wine, dehydrated fruits and vegetables, fruits juices, syrups, pickles, and fresh shrimp. It performs best at pH values below 4.0. Various health concerns — including reported reactions to sulfur dioxide by asthmatics, and headaches other consumers have associated with sulfite consumption — have decreased its use by food manufacturers in recent years.

Research shows that ozone acts as an effective fruit and vegetable sanitizer. FDA recently approved commercial ozone use in U.S. supermarkets and food-processing facilities. Application typically takes place by washing produce with ozone-enriched water.

Ozone molecules contain three oxygen atoms and form when oxygen molecules with two atoms are forced to take on a third. Ozone’s use as a sanitizing agent comes from its unstable molecule structure — the third oxygen atom tends to break apart from the ozone molecule, releasing energy. When exposed to ozone, the produce’s surface bacteria absorb the highly unstable molecules. When that third oxygen atom breaks away, the bacteria explode.

Ozone-enriched water washes kill almost all the bacteria on fresh produce samples, along with some yeast and mold, increasing shelf life by up to two weeks. The treatment also retards softening and browning.


Irradiation update
Many consider irradiation the most effective approach to eliminating pathogens and spoilage microorganisms from the food supply. It not only makes food safe and extends shelf life; it does so while maintaining foods’ fresh quality and nutritional wholesomeness, as no major chemical, physical or sensory changes occur when irradiating foods.

Irradiation exposes food, either prepackaged or in bulk, to controlled levels of ionizing radiation — a type of energy similar to radio and television waves, microwaves and infrared radiation. However, the high energy produced by ionizing radiation allows it to penetrate deeply into food, disrupting the genetic material of microorganisms, thus destroying them.

Concerns about consumer acceptance for irradiation have slowed its adoption by food processors. To combat this, the “First World Congress on Food Irradiation: Meeting the Challenges of Food Safety and Trade” seminar was held in Chicago from May 5-7, 2003. Organized and sponsored by several groups, including the National Food Safety & Toxicology Center at Michigan State University, East Lansing, the congress is expected to lead to a wider acceptance and application of food irradiation as a measure to ensure microbiological safety of food and to facilitate food trade worldwide.

The number of supermarkets marketing irradiated food, mainly ground beef, has grown from less than 100 stores in mid-2000, when irradiated beef was introduced at the retail level, to more than 6,000 stores as of early March. The number of fast-food restaurants serving irradiated hamburgers — including International Dairy Queen, Inc., Minneapolis — and other chain restaurants serving irradiated food is also growing rapidly. SureBeam Corp., San Diego, a provider of irradiation technology, expects to process between 300 million and 350 million pounds of beef in 2003, a significant increase from the 15 million pounds it processed in 2002.

Irradiated food’s safety is well established by scientific studies, including many long-term, multigeneration animal-feeding tests conducted during the past five decades. More than 40 nations have approved the use of food irradiation, and it is recognized by numerous professional groups and food and health organizations around the world, including the World Health Organization, American Medical Association and American Dietetic Association, as a safe means of reducing the levels of organisms that can cause food-borne illness and disease. FDA has approved irradiation for beef, poultry, pork, eggs, fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers, grains and legumes, spices, and other foods.

No foolproof technology to eliminate microorganisms from the food supply exists. But science is working with the food industry to furnish many options, allowing food manufacturers to give it their best shot and, hopefully, take full advantage of what science has to offer.


Donna Berry, president of Chicago-based Dairy & Food Communications, Inc., a network of professionals in business-to-business technical and trade communications, has been writing on product development and marketing for nine years. Prior to that, she worked for Kraft Foods in the natural-cheese division. Donna has a B.S. in food science from the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. She can be reached at donnagorski@msn.com.



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